Parts Of A Research Paper

We’re talking about the abstract and discussion so just a quick review remember the main parts of a research paper that we’re working on in this class are an abstract introduction methods also known as materials results discussion and a reference list for milestone for this week you’re gonna be actually doing a few more things than we’ve seen this week you’re gonna be doing an abstract discussion you’re gonna also do future research ideas you’re going to include discrepancies and you’re also going to be graded on articulation of response so the abstract is going to be a snapshot of your entire paper this is something that is the first thing that people read when they’re looking at a paper it’s usually about a paragraph long it can be longer but you don’t really want it to be much shorter and you want to include at least one to two sentences from each major section of your paper so you want to have a few sentences of introduction you want to cover background purpose and objectives. Learn more about structure of a research paper at Edusson.

In there you’re gonna have a few sentences of methods or how your research was performed a few sentences of results what we found and a few sentences of discussion which is going to be your conclusions and and what it all means so I’ve got kind of linked the abstract here this is one that’s on a bit on the longer side that we’ll go through so the very first part that you see here in black is is the introduction background part of the abstract so it says a quarter of all lega morph species worldwide are threatened with extinction although captive breeding programs sometimes are implemented as emergency conservation measures such efforts often experience limited success a better understanding of the contributions of genetic diversion husbandry to allow successful breeding and captive like Mars is now an urgent conservation priority so what we did here is we kind of gave that broad background unto endangered species or endanger leg morphs and we also introduced the concept of captive breeding which is what this is about in blue this is our methods so it reads we used regression models to explore the genetic biological and husbandry factors associated with pairing success growth and survival during the tenure captive breeding program for Columbia Basin pygmy rabbits rocky legis Idahoans is an ecologically significant unit at Washington State University.

So this methods is very broad unlike your methods in your paper it doesn’t get detailed and specific it’s just a very broad over you for you saying we use regression models and what we were actually looking at genetic biological and husbandry factors and then in red we have our results and this is a little bit long for results but still within reasonable limits so it says parent success increased whereas juvenile survival decreased over the years of the program Perry and success and early juvenile growth declined with increasing Columbia Basin pedigree of the female suggesting the inbreeding depression among the small number of related founders pygmy rabbits face trade-offs between high reproduction and high juvenile mortality related to pen size diet quality and pairing strategy pygmy rabbits had greater parent success and early juvenile growth but lower juvenile survival in larger pens juvenile survival was also lower on the higher quality diet juveniles born at warmer ambient temperatures had a higher survival to emergence from their natal burrow.

Chronological Order In Narration Essay

When you`re writing a narration essay what you need to do is read the topic sentence and then put one two three four in the blank of the sentence you think should come first the sentence that comes second third and fourth okay a combination of talent and hard work has propelled Alicia Keys to musical stardom so now look at the sentences some have dates of years in them some have ages mentioned those are clues to time or time clues to help you put these four sentences in order as if you are writing a paragraph about Alicia Keys alright so here are the answers did you get all of them correct number one that’s the earliest date in 1988 seven years old you have to time clothes. Check out other articles on narration in essays at Edusson.

So of course that’s going to be the first sentence in the paragraph right after the topic sentence the next one number two as a teenager so we have moved from seven-year-old to teenager right that’s time order the third one mentions at age twenty you’ve gone from seven to teenager to age twenty we know that teenager is somewhere between 13 and 19 this statement did not have to say when she was 19 years old alright it simply says a teenager teenager is still a time clue word and then statement number four 2005 now that is the latest year that you see in these statements so of course that is going to be the last one so we have moved from seven-year-old in 1988 all the way down to 2005 where she is over 20 years old in fact she’s 23 so make sure that you tell your narration in a clear chronological sequence from beginning to end transitional words move you from one paragraph to the next or it moves you from one part of your story to the next part of your story.

Since narration essays rely on chronological order or time sequence words and phrases that signal time are helpful to the reader to keep us clear on the order of your experience okay let’s take a look examples of transition words that you will use in a narration essay afterward after that currently eventually finally first later meanwhile next now soon then or you can use dates of the year as we saw in a previous example in the Alicia Keys paragraph but use transitional words so that we are clear that you are moving to another part of your story and that you are wrapping it up so here are some tips on writing your narration essay number one remember a narration essay is not a short story it is not a journal or a diary entry it is still and as say that requires an introduction a thesis of body and a conclusion remember your narration si needs to have a point why are you sharing this story what can readers learn from your experience make the point of the story known in the conclusion of the essay.

How to Write a Killer Essay | Essay Tips, Tricks, Hacks, etc…

Today, I’m going to be sharing my tips for you guys to write a killer essay and overall tips and tricks to do so.

So the first step is to make sure that you have all your required materials. This means that you have previous essays, books, your laptop etc. You can also have pens that you need. The second step is to know any specifications that you have such as if your essay is MLA format what the due date is. So a tip for this is to actually try an essay checklist.

These are super helpful because you can either add your own specifications to this or you can use the ones online but it definitely helps you to organize your essays. Another big thing about writing an essay is actually planning out your essay. You can outline it yourself but planning is a big daunting task but it is the most important. So this is basically how I organize my essays. So on the top of a piece of paper, I’ll write the topic and the prompt or whatever the teacher gives me that I need to write my essay about and then what I’ll do is I’ll write my thesis statement on my first line and then I will do points. Basically this is a spot where I’m going to write down all the information I want to include in my essay in no particular order.

So I’ll write down facts from my notes, I’ll write down quotes and stuff from books I’ve read or from my notes that need to be quoted and then what I’ll do is I’ll organize out my information in paragraph form. So usually I will write my topic sentence down so that I know what I’m going to be writing about.

Usually I relate this topic sentence back to my thesis so that it flows better and then I go back and edit it. Once I actually finish writing the rough draft of the paper then what I do is I point down the different points that I want to discuss in any quotes or any citations that I’m going to need for this part. So a tip for this is if you want to organize your information more visually you can use different color highlighters and that way it’s going to be a lot easier for you to actually be able to see the information that you have and organize information and your paragraphs and see what relates to what topic.

So the next step is to actually write out your essay. However, you need to get this done. I just basically put some music on and start writing as much as I can and then I go back and edit it once I finished that. So one thing that you can do to make your essay better is to add transition words to vary your sentence structure and to add vocab or fancy words.

I hope you enjoyed reading this article and I will get back to you soon.

How to Write a College Analysis Essay

Defining the Role

Whether you’re putting together an analysis of a main character or a minor character, it is important that your essay address the role she plays in the story. Some roles, such as the protagonist and antagonist, may be obvious. Main characters can also serve more complex roles than the simple protagonist definition. A lead character can be an underdog, an anti-hero, a tragic hero or even an unwilling hero.

Discovering the purpose of a minor character often takes closer examination. Minor characters may be flat, two-dimensional people who remain unchanged throughout the course of a story, or three-dimensional, rounded characters who experience their own metamorphosis. These characters might serve as foils for the main characters, as older and wiser advisers, as sidekicks or even as obstacles the main characters must overcome.

Finding Motivation

Everyone wants something, especially a character in a literary work. Whether a hero desperate to complete a quest, a villain determined to stop him or a minor character along for the ride, each character in a story will have identifiable wants and needs.

Quite often, though, what a character wants is in direct opposition to what he really needs. For example, a man longing for the attention of a woman out of his league might need to realize that he’ll only find true love when he sees his female sidekick in a romantic light. At the college level, character analysis essays should go beyond simply identifying the wants and needs
motivating the characters; they should also address how the characters affect one another.

Addressing the Arc

While some minor characters are unchanging, most characters will be markedly different at the end of a story than they were at the beginning. While main characters, such as the protagonist, often make the most dramatic, obvious changes, minor characters also have a story arc. They might make only subtle changes, such as a sidekick quietly letting go to allow the hero to find love or finish her mission alone. The arcs of unchanging characters should also be addressed, as they will most likely have encountered situations in which they’ve made the choice not to change.

  • Describe the physical appearance of the character and explain what the appearance reveals about the person.
  • Discuss the language that the character uses throughout the work. Does the character use the same language throughout or does his or her choice of language change from the introduction to the conclusion?
  • If provided, include details about the background of the character (some of these details may have to be inferred). Where/when was the character born and raised? What kind of education does the character have? How does the character’s past experience influence what he or she does or says?
  • Write about the personality of the character. Does the character act on emotions or reason? What values does the character exhibit through words or actions? Does the character have goals or ambitions?
  • Describe and analyze the relationships that the character has with others in the story. Does the character lead or follow others in the story? Does the character have close friends and family?
  • Explain the struggle or conflict that the character faces beyond the obvious – what are the internal struggles as well as the external conflicts.
  • Describe the important actions of the character. What do these actions tell the reader about the character and how the character faces the conflict?

Useful resources:


Character Analysis Research Paper

Complete each sentence prompt to build the elements of a complete character analysis.

You must include the following in your essay:
1. Five to ten vocabulary words from your various lists
2. Several of all types of syntax – sentence structure: simple, compound, complex and compound-complex.
3. Secondary source quotes in the introduction and conclusion.
4. Lead-ins and parenthetical documentation for every quote.

Thesis Statement

 You can’t begin a quality essay without establishing a guiding statement from which all ideas extend.
 Within the statement name the character, his beginning personality and/or behaviors, changes and ending traits in broad terms. Those
three things will be the foundation of your body paragraphs.


1. Make a general comment about the subject matter of your thesis stmt / claim.

2. Relate your general subject matter to the author and what he addresses in the novel.

3. Explain why it is essential that this character be analyzed. Psychological, emotional, physical results, etc. Be broad but specific to your chosen character.

4. Begin the detailed description of the character and a general description of the influences on that character.

5. More details about the character and a general statement about how the
character changes or develops through the entire work. What point
are you trying to make?

6. Thesis Statement / Claim

Body Paragraph – Beginning of Novel Character Analysis

1. Topic Sentence – Make a statement about what this paragraph will

2. Expand on the topic sentence with a description of the character in general terms but more specific than in the introduction.

3. Include a primary source quote to support your analysis Include a lead-in and proper parenthetical documentation.

4. Describe what your primary source quote does to support your analysis. Why is it important for the reader to understand your analysis?
Do not begin with “this quote shows…”

5. Include a quote from your secondary source – the research.
Include a lead-in and proper parenthetical documentation.

6. Why is this statement important to include in your analysis? What
further insight does it provide? How does it relate to your topic?

7. Describe / summarize the character’s personality, behaviors, etc. as you
have analyzed it from the first several chapters of the novel. Include a statement that suggests a change as a transition to next paragraph

Follow the same sentence breakdown for the next two body paragraphs.


1. Restate the thesis statement/claim. See the first sentence of the sample essay.

2. Include a secondary source quote to support your overall ideas of character development and change within the novel.
Include a lead-in and proper parenthetical documentation.

3-5. Sentences  – write one sentence that summarizes the analysis in each of your body paragraphs.

6. Describe / summarize the character’s personality, behaviors, etc. as you
have analyzed it in this essay. Describe what the result is from the character’s transition or changes. What happens to him in the end?

Greatest Invention Research Paper

The project is to allow you to show your research skills in history.  You will have the same thesis statement as everyone else; however, you will have opportunity to take the thesis statement in several directions.

You will be arguing your point of view with the following statement:  ________ is the invention, between the years of 1860 to 1905 that has had the greatest impact on America today.

General Guidelines

The objectives are to provide you the opportunity to demonstrate your acquired research skills and to provide you the opportunity to research, in detail, the inventions from the turn of the century (while showing their impact on today’s society).

The paper must be written in your own words. You will interpret the information you gather and provide your own explanation.

Plagiarism will not be tolerated.

The paper must be seven pages in its entirety and will include:

  1. Title page: 1 page
  2. Table of Contents 1 page
  3. Body 4 pages
  4. Bibliography/Works Cited 1 page

The body must be written in a three-part essay style.

1. The first paragraph will be the introduction. In the introduction you must broach the subject with background information of the era.  The focus and culmination of the paragraph will be the thesis statement.  Your introduction must include the three main points and brief descriptions for the paper.

2. The second part of the paper will be a minimum of three main points each supported by, at least, two referenced details.

3. The third part is a conclusion with final words of the autor of research paper. Here, you can also mention the sources you have used for this paper and main thoughts regarding your topic.

Research Paper Format Part II

STEP 4 – Outline

The outline is the shell of the paper that you are going to write. Many students tend to jump immediately into the writing, which results in a sloppy and unfocused paper. The outline will need to be typed or hand-written and in the following format.

  1. Introduction
  2. Paragraph 1 Topic Sentence – Explain what the first paragraph will be about.
    1. This should be the 1st fact supporting your first topic sentence.
    2. This should be the 2nd fact supporting your second topic sentence.
    3. This should be the 3rd fact supporting your second topic sentence.
  • Paragraph 2 Topic Sentence – Explain what the second paragraph will be about.
    1. This should be the 1st fact supporting your second topic sentence.
    2. This should be the 2nd fact supporting your second topic sentence.
    3. This should be the 3rd fact supporting your second topic sentence.

Then continue to follow this format until completed (minimum: introduction, 3 paragraphs, and conclusion). Be sure to show it to the teacher for the easy points. This only needs to be a basic explanation of your topic sentence and facts. You will be surprised how much easier this makes the writing of your rough draft.

STEP 5 – Rough Draft

Approach the rough draft as you would your final copy. The better your rough draft, the less you will have to correct for your final copy. Use the outline to help you write your paragraphs. If you want to add more than what you had on your original outline¸ that is acceptable! Remember, your paper must be three pages double-spaced not counting the title and work cited pages.

When completed with the draft, you must have two people besides the teacher read it, edit it to the best of their ability, and sign their name on the back page. The more seriously you and your peers take the editing, the more polished your paper will be when you turn in your final copy for grading. DO NOT THROW AWAY THE ROUGH DRAFT. YOU WILL NEED TO TURN IT IN PAPER-CLIPPED TO YOUR FINAL COPY.

STEP 6- Final Copy

The final copy will be the edited version of your rough draft. Make sure you read over your rough draft CAREFULLY. Every spelling and grammatical error that you can catch will be another point that you earn. Turn this in with your rough draft.


Paper Content                               100 pts

Title Page                                             5 pts

Works Cited Page                           15 pts

Spelling and Grammar                20 pts

Proper Formatting of Paper      10 pts

                                                             150 pts

Research Paper Format

  1. Title Page: I will provide you with a format for this page. This does not count as one of your pages.
  2. Introductory Paragraph: This is a basic summary of what is going to be explained in your research paper. You should set the tone and time period.
  3. Body: The paper will be at least three full pages, typed and double spaced.
  4. Conclusion: See above.
  5. Works Cited: This is the page with the sources you used in your research paper, properly formatted.

STEP 1 – Pick a topc

STEP 2 – Thesis

The thesis is the overall point that you are attempting to make about your topic. You are not simply regurgitating information. Whether you realize it or not, when you write, you always take a viewpoint. Your thesis will put this in words and keep you focused when writing your research paper. In future courses, you will learn more in-depth on how to properly create a thesis statement. For the sake of our class, we will keep it simple. If you do not know much about your topic, you may want or choose to conduct your research before coming up with your thesis.

EXAMPLE TOPIC: Prisoners of War in the Vietnam War

EXAMPLE THESIS: While the United Nations has laws concerning how prisoners of war are treated, evidence demonstrates that American troops captured by the Viet Cong soldiers were treated unfairly – and perhaps illegally.

As you can see, the example topic is about POWs in the Vietnam War. The thesis focuses where I will be going with my research paper: captured American troops were treated very poorly. I can even use the thesis in my introductory paragraph. My research will then need to support this thesis, perhaps by using statistics (e.g. death toll of American POWs), personal stories, or other established scholarly research.

STEP 3 – Record Sources

You will need to record your sources in the proper APA format for use in your Works Cited page. Record them as you get them, either on note cards or a single piece of paper. When you have at least five, show them to the teacher for critique and credit. Follow the examples below very carefully.

Citation Examples

  • Book
    • Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Print.
      • g.: Smith, James. The Life of Teddy Roosevelt. New York: Great Books Publications, 2003. Print.
    • Internet
      • Author (if available).  “Article/Page Title.” Name of Site. Date of creation (if available). Web. Date of access.
        • g.: Jones, Paul. “Teddy Roosevelt’s Family.” The History Channel. 24 Feb. 2008. Web. 27 Oct. 2010.

Research Paper Guidelines

You are to conduct a research paper on a specific event, era, or person in American history from 1945 to the present. The purpose of this project is to develop both your writing and research skills. Critical thinking, personal responsibility, and a strong work ethic will be key to your success on this project.

As a formal research paper, you will be examining the FACTS surrounding your topic. That means your research should support and clearly explain your topic. This is not an opinion piece. See “Mr. Burdick’s Tips for Writing a Research Paper” for further instructions on how to properly write a formal research paper.

Research Paper Specifications

  • Proper grammar and spelling (-1 point for each error, 20 point cap)
  • 3 pages of content, double-spaced
  • 1-inch margins, 12 point Times New Roman font
  • Title and Works Cited pages

Research Paper Self-Checklist

Check these goals off as you complete them (and show the teacher) to help keep you focused.

  1. Pick a topic 5 pts
  2. Record sources 5 pts
  3. Outline 15 pts
  4. Thesis 5 pts
  5. Peer-Reviewed Rough Draft 10 pts
  6. Final Paper 150 pts

This assignment is a major part of your American History experience – not only being a significant part of your grade, but also as a way of demonstrating your understanding of U.S. history and highlighting your research and writing skills. As always, be very careful that the words you are writing are you own (or properly attributed).

Any attempts to plagiarize, whether intentional or not, will result in an automatic grade of zero on this project.

Before you even begin your research paper, you should consider the following questions. It will be your goal to provide research in your paper that answers these questions.

Who? Where? Why?

Your research paper will begin with an explanation of the aforementioned questions. As stated below, specify the time of the event or person that you have selected to research. Specify where the event took place, and include important locations within the event itself. Who is this person or who was involved in your event?


What is the important question your research will answer? What happened and what were the details and important facts concerning your topic? This will be the focus of your work, be as complete as you can. What happened and what was the involvement of the person or subject of your research. Give a timeline of events as they took place in your subject outcomes.


How and why did this event happen or why is this person/event significant to the history of the United States? This answer may not always be clear at first. Use your research should support your claims.

Lessons Learned

What lessons did the United States learn from this event or person? What impact did this event or person have on the country or the world?


What conclusions have been reached? Summarize your subject and why your topic was important. This can be used as the conclusion to your paper.

Business Letter format and reference

Differences Between a Business Letter and a
Friendly Letter:
1. The Heading: In a friendly letter, you
would normally just write the date in the upper right
hand corner. However, in a business letter, you need
to put your
address followed by the date. This can be placed at
the upper right hand corner, or aligned on the left
margin of the page.
2. The Inside Address: This is not put in a
friendly letter, but in a business letter you also put
the entire address of the recipient, along with the
name of the person you are addressing if possible,
and their title.
3. The Salutation: In a business letter, you need to
follow the salutation with a colon, not a comma.
4. The Body: Use formal language and be
straight and to the point. Make sure you put all the
details that are important to your communication.
5. The Closing: Usually a formal “Sincerely,” and then
a space and your name typed below. The space
should allow room for a handwritten signature.

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